Modern Sophia, Bulgaria (q.v.). Serdica's importance lay in its strategic location along major road systems, the most important of which was the Belgrade-Naissus-Serdica-Philippopolis (qq.v.) road to Constantinople (q.v.). The Council of Serdica (ca. 343) attempted to settle the question of Athanasios's Orthodoxy (qq.v.), but it failed. The western bishops (q.v.) confirmed it, but the eastern bishops did not. The city suffered from the attacks of Visigoths (q.v.) in the late fourth century and Huns (q.v.) during the time of Attila (q.v.), but it remained in Byzantine hands until Krum (q.v.) conquered it and massacred its garrison in 809. With the victory of Basil II (q.v.) over Bulgaria, it became a Byzantine city again, until it was captured by Asen I (q.v.) in 1194. The Ottomans (q.v.) conquered it in 1382.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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